Study on the relationship between the old Jewish quarter of Valencia and the Joint S. Juan del Hospital, northern boundary of the same

Summary of historical coexistence:

In 1245, at the request of King James I, a Bull of Innocent IV authorized the creation of a General Study in Valencia, in which the teaching of Arabic, Hebrew, Latin and Greek were normal, so that: "Theological studies, exegesis, Semitic languages ​​of the three great monotheistic religions coexisted for centuries with science, and the arts in a trade in ideas that everyone Profits by ".

In 1499 the General Study of Valencia would be created, granted by Pope Alexander VI, in order to unify the various city schools and students acquire academic and university degree.

The religious-military order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem erected in Valencia the first hospital-hostel reconquered city and built a church, above even the Seo, He was born in Jerusalem, before the arrival of the First Crusade. Located in the area corresponding to the pool Betezda, (ancestrally dedicated to hospital), extramural north of the Holy Temple, respected biblical standards, common to Jews and Muslims, making possible the coexistence in their shelters for both beliefs.

Set of Valencia hospital keeps commonalities in their history with these two religions and peoples. From legacy building elements and reused, structural arrangements and ornamental tradition that drag from east.

historical commonalities between the Jewish Quarter and San Juan del Hospital:

The Jewish quarter of Valencia (Call elsewhere) always he held the same place in the city, since King D. Jaime I clinches 1238 until dissolved as such 2 October of 1393; It depended on the demarcation of the parish of St. Thomas to its expansion in the s. XIV, then covering part of the parish boundaries of St. Andrew and St. Stephen to destruction, openness to the rest of the city and retreat in 1391. The thirteenth day of November calendas 1244, (20 October), Don Jaime gave the Jews of Valencia limited space: “… el Adarve Abingeme, Nalmelig to the bathroom and down towards the door Xerea and thence to the furnace Albimulli and Adarve of Abrahim Alvalenci”.[1],[2]

Jewry has always maintained close relationship and admitted to the hospital complex of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, born in the shadow of the holy city with a large Jewish and biblical ideological in their statutes or consuetas, measures in its buildings and in the caring behavior.

Among the documents on opening consists Miracle Street, what in 1388 this street, Landlocked Trinquete de los Caballeros, not part of the Jewish quarter, although all of it was inhabited by Jews and was bickering and confrontations site.[3] Specifying that they were: “…outside the limits of the closures and lur Juhé…. “, and justifying the opening, to enter the temple of San Juan del hospital, because:

“…convengues and make big long way round and passed inside or closures of such Juhé ".

You can read in church visits the parish churches of St. Andrew and St. Thomas, as corroborating the existence of numerous Jewish homes around San Juan del Hospital: “… They also said outside juderiam ", origin of various problems.[4] Problems that watched the Furs of Valencia, edition of 1482, fol. 132, Library of the University of Valencia, 92-7-11.

Another curious fact which shows the correspondence between the church of San Juan del Hospital and the Valencians Hebrew is as follows: "in 1274 Pere Abrafim deja 10 sou,s plus five, for expenses to be buried in a tomb carved in the cemetery of San Juan del Hospital. "

Possibly one of the arch-carved stone thrones surrounding area cemeterial.

Gateway to the South patio or old cemetery of San Juan del Hospital, which it was built in the s. XIV with elements manufactured from the northern gate of the Juderia or Cabrerots. It was in this location until the mid-twentieth century in which the door as such disappeared, leaving the crenellated wall. Restored and rebuilt in the year 2002.

A gate of the Jewish quarter closed enclosure cemeterial San Juan del Hospital from the s. XV al XX:

In the Plaza of Cabreröts, existed until S. XIV a door closing early judería, which it was demolished in 1390, to use materials in the door being built in the new enclosing wall, a New Portal, near San Juan del Hospital, in the Plaza de la Xerea corner Soler Street Cristóforo[5] : ".Dimecres xxvij of April in the year above det nativity of our Lord M ccc ninety begins to demolish the portal Square Cabrerots per stone finger portal to portal that has made the singer who blends street den Xpofol Soler in which work….etc.”, not knowing if it was never finished, for the following year happened the assault and retranqueo of the Jewish quarter.

Although document 1393, to facilitate payment of debts to Jews and conversos, after the dissolution of Jewry by kings D. John and Mrs.. Violante, appointment: “…and portal vers Sent Joan of Spital and…etc.”[6] The door was dismantled later, by royal command in the same year 1393, and reused in the cemetery sanjuanista.

During that same time and administrator accounts it is also known that "arches and vaults" that sostuvieran the walls and streets were built will configure, safeguarding heat or rain, apertured skylights occasionally to allow the passage of light and air, Hebrew so that currently can be seen in their cities.[7]

In the temple of San Juan del Hospital is an arch of plementería, blind, located in the area west of the church, located adjacent and parallel to the remains of two others that could correspond to azudcatchs alleys or similar to those in Jerusalem and Jewish neighborhoods in several Spanish cities like Toledo, Mallorca, Sant Mateu, (Castellón)…etc.

In this recreation of the assault to Judería, You can see the arch that crosses the street is the entrance to the walled enclosure, very similar to the arc It is seen in the plane of Father T. Tosca on the grounds of San Juan del Hospital between Callejón de las Penas and Soler Street Cristóforo ,separating the two Christian and Jewish quarters, (see indicative arrow), and recently appeared in the rear temple. (see arrow).

A point of interest:

To locate well the limits of the Jewish Quarter, recalls Pertegás, “ has clearly and reconstitute the ancient topography of the house and hospital of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, seeing that the cemetery occupied the back of this house, limited by the old street of Cristòfol Soler In going from east to west, He separated this house from the Jewish quarter and came together almost squarely on what was called "the song of fossar Sent Joan" (corner) with that coming from Miracle Street, partly converted courtyard of this church and occupying the atrium of the same, He crossed what is now the street houses around San Cristobal and printing of Doménech, addressing (if prolonged), the Jewish Butchery, facing the biggest Synagogue ".

And it establishes the final enclosure flat to start including saying: "Starting from the church of San Juan del Hospital, that this is still possible existing wall closing only remains of the Jewish quarter…”

Within this, something besides understudied and very interesting, It is the location of the smaller synagogues, (or houses of prayer), of known had more than one, Since most were classified as such and in that the various Hebrew Repartiment was donated "mosques", possibly being altered his real name.

Several documents ratified in March 1239 the existence of these small synagogues and prayer houses donated to Jewish individuals: "Delponti mosque", "Meçquit to the Dalgalch", "Meçquitam and Çabaçalamin". In 1378, Haron is given to Rubio, (St. Andrew Parish), license to build "at his home in the Jewish quarter a house of prayer ", that as an existing, “I had twenty feet wide, other both in height and length forty, with the departments needed, banks and grandstands. [8] He was referring of course to Valencians palmos.

From 1392, these "houses of prayer" were purified and converted into churches or Christian chapels or absorbed in private homes; the lack of subsequent data until the final expulsion of the Jews in Spain 1492, It does not reveal exactly what happened to them.

In the interior of the block of houses enclosing the enclosure Set of San Juan del Hospital, in the zona sur, He recovered after the recent Soler Cristóforo alley and attached to the wall of the Jewish Quarter, forming the ancient street, closed north by arch-thrones of sanjuanista medieval cemetery, There is a small building of square plant, almost cubical, Corner with the Callejon de las Penas, who along with two other limited by the Palace houses Carroz-Valeriola, Soler belonged to Serafina, who at his death left them to the clergy of the church of San Juan del Hospital, for sale with burial expenses were paid and take care of his chapel at the foot of the church.[9]

Was it a small Jewish prayer house? Would not it have to measure it and make some archaeological tastings? A professor of urban sociology of U.P.V. supports the hypothesis that possible outside a synagogue or "house of prayer".

The truth is that it was reused by new owners Christian Chapel, covered with tiny baroque dome tabicada, painted by Jose Mª in Fenollera 1876, and is on the relationship that makes Miguel A. Catalá in the chapter on "Palaces and houses" Monumental catalog of Valencia, documented by the texts of Baron de San Petrillo and Redón Juliá.

Tomb Absalom near Jerusalem. Cubic appreciable proportions follow the Hebrew canon.

It has carved the rock around the funeral construction to comply with the law Mosaica:

"Keep what belongs to exempt the dead, of all the living ".

Very significant are also the steps that raise the mausoleum above ground.

Behind her the countless sarcophagi surrounding the city are, from worldwide diaspora.

All these coincidences and similarities inspired and enabled the historical and artistic Commission preparing the draft reintegration southern courtyard, under the hypothesis of exemption from the small chapel of the Rey Don Jaime, high in the center of the perimeter of arc-thrones, (then fully covered by terraced buildings on the north side, as the central burial chapel).

GRAPHIC historical documentation

Valencia plane indicating the perimeter of the Roman Circus.

It indicates the route of the old Roman circus Valentia in imperial times, as reconstructed Archaeologist Albert Bank.

The remains of the spina Circus appeared in the excavations of the southern courtyard of San Juan del Hospital, inside the primitive crypt of Doña Constanza of Greece in the courtyard of Sta. Barbara, south or cemetery area.

Discovery occurred during the development of "Raphael" project approved by the European Commission on Culture in October 1996.

The arrow indicates the "solar" I occupy San Juan del Hospital and it is surrounded by the enclosure of the Jewish Quarter (hypothetical plane published in "City of Valencia" Sanchis Guarner)

Valencia plane in the Muslim period (XI centuries at the beginning of XIII)

Recreation of the Islamic city of Valencia, with its walled enclosure of the eleventh century, which it was maintained until the conquest.

The sun would occupy from 1238 sanjuanistas knights stood the intramural, by the door of Xerea and belonged as recorded in the Llibre of the emir Azach Repartiment Abunbedel or Ali-bandel.


Plane of the Jewish quarter of Valencia before 1391, as it recorded in the book of J. Rodrigo Pertegás.






Signs plane:

small circles: oooooooo S first boundary. XIII

dot-dash axis: -.-.-.-.-.-.-.- widening s. XIV

arrow: <<<<<<< open end closure.

J) Christopher Calle de Soler

3 –1 Church and Cemetery of San Juan del Hospital

This plan published work on the Jewish Quarter of R. affirmed, It indicates the limits of the enclosure of the Jewish quarter of Valencia 1391, before its enlargement and reduction assault. The northern limits of the Jewish quarter were located in the vicinity of San Juan del Hospital, limit of the streets Christopher Soler (then missing) and San Cristobal that led to the butchery against the Jewish Synagogue, (Convento de San Cristobal later and now in C / del Mar).

In the same plane can see the primitive enclosure, widening and the last retranqueo.

The adjoining houses that were outside the walled enclosure is mainly ranged between San Juan del Hospital and San Esteban.

Detail shot of Antonio Valencia Mancelli, (published in 1601).

Caballera perspective plane Antonio Mancelli, drawn during late s. XVI is the first documentary image Set of San Juan del Hospital, before transformation Baroque.

the nave of the church and the two courts is clearly identified north and south of the temple; access to the site are indicated in Street Trinquete de Caballeros and Miracle Street.

Of great interest is the location of the small hospital-funerary chapel or Sta. Mª Magdalena, (also called King D. Jaime I), in the center courtyard South, in which you can see the perimeter wall separating the cemetery from the Jewish quarter and was linde Street Soler Cristóforo, whose offspring, Serafina Soler is linked to the transformation of the courtyard and inheritances.

Likewise bulrush and cross at each corner of the roof shown in funerary chapel gable that covered.

Detail shot of Tomás Vicente Tosca Valencia (1704) sector S. Juan de el Hospital

This plane repeats the view plane and composition Mancelli, but it shows the cityscape almost a century later.

It appears indicated the set of San Juan del Hospital distinguishing: church with steeple, playgrounds, the south side divided by a funeral chapel attached to the wall; the two Romanesque gates to the temple and access to the site from: Alley Cristo de las Penas (to the south), the north courtyard that ends in a azucatch that reaches the street in San Cristobal (to West), Miracle Street, parallel to the north, separating the House of Encomienda de Torrente and Street Trinquete de los Caballeros (the is).

South the palace of the Valeriota and new construction stands behind arch-thrones, with absorption alley Cristóforo Soler and disappearance of the walls of the Jewish Quarter.

Construtivo-up of historical stages of assembly of the Hospital San Juan and his urban environment, realiado in 2001, according to the "Director of the Temple and dependencies of San Juan del Hospital Valencia Plan".




Margarita Ordeig Corsini

Drag. Technical Site Museum "Conjunto San Juan del Hospital Valencia"


[1] Rodrigo Pertegás: The Jewish quarter of Valencia – 1913

[2] Regestrum transfer of the Kingdom of Valencia, Archive of the Crown of Aragon, XIX, fol. 56

[3] Notal Jaime Maestre, 15 February's 1388, A.R.V.

[4] T. 2 visit, fol. 28, Arch. of the Ecclesiastical Curia of Valencia.

[5] Compte closing of the work of the juhería administered by Loys de Menargues, TO. M. V.

[6] Reg. 2045,fol. 25, A.C.A.

[7] Upon building works in Piazza San Vte. with C / del Mar was seen an arc of step, as well as on the grounds of San Juan del Hospital, recovered in the works of the new chapel of the rear area.

[8] Archive of the Curia Church of Valencia, letra F, 151, fol. Ccxx. Book of collations, No year 1378

[9] This tomb was found during construction and project surveys "Raphael".

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