TRAVEL SITE MUSEUM: Conceptualized as intangible asset
1. Entry transit. S. XIII
Transit or former "Hall of Capillitas" is the oldest part of the building, currently the main entrance to the historic set from Street Trinquete Caballeros. Its location is known and documented use since the s. XIII.
This step towards the Patio North had several chapels, dedicated to various invocations. The best known were the Virgen del Milagro and Cristo de las Penas. All with their corresponding funerary vessel or crypt, for burial of his confreres. In the S. XVIII vaulted ceiling was demolished and the current roof was built; and he was protected from moisture with a tiled plinth.
2. red crosses thirteenth century.
Perhaps most important transit is the polychrome wall with red crosses Crusaders, thirteenth century. Crosses also called "Epatés" or "leg VEROS". Similar to the crosses painted and carved on the walls of the buildings built by the Crusaders in Jerusalem. Number and layout correspond to the position and number of "freires", i.e., sanjuanistas of knights who lived in the hospital grounds.
The two larger correspond to Comendador de Torrente and Deputy Prior of San Juan del Hospital and the four smaller for diners.
On the wall of the red crosses an interesting "loophole" that belonged to the primitive fortified building or even to previous opens, Islamic.
3. Transit primitive chapel. S. XIII
Ogee a primitive trace is what remains of the original capillitas who settled in the transit or passage to the courtyard host, the "Ospedale" or north patio set. It provides an image of Our Lady of the Miracle is installed, replica of s. XX of the sculptor José Luis Roig, inspired by the authentic image of the XIII century, brought by the conquistadors and preserved in the museum of the Cathedral of Valencia.
4. Arches in the courtyard of the Stations of the Cross.
Five pointed arches, of simple but robust construction, They say what was the area of the hostel or "ospedale" primitive, which housed patients, destitute and dying. It was the charisma of religious-military order of the Hospital San Juan de Jerusalen, order founded in the s. XI in Palestine by some merchants of Amalfi, Italy.
Above them were the rooms of the "freires" or commensal (those living on campus) the Knights Hospitaller. (That is explained in the "Free Consellers", late s. XV)
5. Romanesque door of the early church of San Juan, 13th century.
In front of the arches, in the oldest part of the hospital complex, is the known door Romanic, one of the entrances to the temple.
It opens between buttresses and consists of two bodies: lower, It is corresponding to the oldest factory, It is formed by an arch with smooth drum segments at the same level of the façade and topped by a double molding or "bead" which runs along the arch ring.
The upper arch is formed by a warhead with pointed vault, is an "arc of shelter" that, as the name suggests, protected the door inclement weather.
It is offset from the axis of the lower door. It provides an oculus equlíneo route opens, with eight-pointed shield of St John Order, stylized stone tracery. It was awarded the Cross of the Order by Pope Alexander IV in the mid-XIII, represent the eight beatitudes, exerted by the Hospitaller Order.
6. Primitive Shield Knights Hospitaller, 13th century.
Located on the rectangular frame of the door, You can see the primitive shield of the Order of the Hospital. Made in wood stone impostada, that would certainly be policromado with cross on white background and ghouls, Red, but the weather has changed colors. This element served the academic D. Elías Tormo Monzó to chronologically date the construction of this part of the church, older even than the cathedral factory, of 1263, since the change of command shield occurred during the previous pontificate to this date.
7. Tiers of the Roman Circus Valencia.
As we move towards the end of the patio are on the ground, identified four parallel lines bronze, the trace of the Roman walls that supported the stands of "Circus of Valentia", It built in the third century D.C. Its dimension is approximately 300 meters long 150 Wide, (from the Square of Naples and Sicily to the back street of the College of Corpus Christi or Patriarca), He could accommodate 10.000 viewers. (Albert Ribera study).
8. Chapel of Saint Ferréol.
The current entrance to the nave of the church is the former chapel of St. Ferreol or Almella; It contains a funeral going Almela belonging to the family acquired it from its first users. It was damaged during the bombing of the War of Independence. The keystones of the arches of the vault tabicada, They were numbered, disassembled and stored in order to use the stay. Its last use was as a cinema engine room SARE, which he was installed in the church during the decade of the 60 del s. XX.
In the early years of s. XXI, It was recovered and rebuilt the original dome space. The keystones and stony sections, including key, had been found in the rubble has South Patio, in the field of university work year 1994-95. It was investigated and studied the possibility of reconstruction from the brackets still located in place and coinciding with the original intact numbering of pieces found.
9. Cord fabric of the former Atrium. Chapel of Our Lady of Students, 14th century
It is a stretch of the old courtyard that served over north yard south yard and part of the street of the same name. It is accessed under an ogee, elements reused, a space formed by two sections of vault being offset are asymmetric. In the corbels, where arches alight, and keys, no decoration noble weapons and shields: Los Mascarell. On the crumbling roof of this chapel acoustic amphorae they were found in the exhibition hall of the museum and served to lighten the burden of the vaults and provide sound to the enclosure.
10. Image of Our Lady the Virgin Student.
This chapel of Mascarell now has a very celebrated advocation, It is because there is placed an image of the Virgin "Student" and her flock in large numbers of college, college and even some opposition or famous writer.
It is a Gothic sculpture of the Virgin Mary sedente, with baby Jesus in her left knee. It was found in 1967 by hunters in a retreat from the town of Rada de Haro (departure of Belmonte, province of Cuenca); He was among the wood and was taken to the pastor of the shelter so he asked them: the two hams they had acquired and 1500 They are carrying pesetas.
11. Calvary Chapel.
The chapel was originally the chapel of the City maceros, under the altar who had access to his grave: a large crypt. It has now been dedicated to Christ of Sorrows, Former head of the Confraternity of the same name that had its original place in Traffic. It was a title of great tradition in the celebrations of Holy Week from the s. XIV-XV and he had entrusted the care for prisoners from jail.
The images that make up the Calvario are of great artistic interest. Acquired an antiquarian in the early 70 del s. XX, They have been recently restored and under multiple layers tinkering has appeared and has been able to recover the original color, Of great beauty.
Virgin and San Juan are the twelfth century, made in boxwood or olive one-piece assemblies; carved following the structure of the trunk, slightly curved leftwards, which causes a slight movement that gives them grace and volume. Polychrome mimics the texture of fabrics of the time, with plant motifs and gold in the details. The size of San Juan places the right arm resting on the face: maximum expression of pain allowed in the representation of the characters who accompanied divinity, and that was as distinctive figure of San Juan for centuries.
The image of Christ crucified on a tree-cross is the fourteenth century. The size is probably Mediterranean fruit, It composed of three piece assembly: the central body and arms. It has bowed head to the Franciscan style, with front crumple Shroud. On the back a recess perceived, coated fabric and stucco, which it was used as locket. Shape "perizoma" or cloth purity, short, knotted on the right side, determines the time of the embodiment of Figure, since the length of the drape of the fabric was admitted short length, in the fourteenth century. It is light blue with bold silver drawing, marked influence of Italian-Byzantine.
The cross preserves its characteristics tree, with the outbreak of the branches. Painted pale greenish gray with small red flowers and dark blue, It represents Christ's victory over death. INRI is a wooden tablet carved in the form of parchment curled at the ends and painted in white and cadmium, letters in light blue cobalt and gold at the edges, so different from the tradition of this tablet.
12. Chapel San Pedro. Altarpiece. S. XIV-XV
anonymous altarpiece, origin of Pyrenean Catalan-aranés, stew made with gold and rich polychrome. The central panel represents San Pedro who holds the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven as an attribute. The side scenes do not refer to the central image, but rather to the life of the Virgin: Annunciation, Natividad, Adoration of the Kings and ascension to heaven. At the pinnacle Crucifixion. In all Mary is present. What surrounds a smock or "POLSERA", possibly made with planking and removed some dilapidated roof, with polychrome and motives closest to s. XV.
13. Chapel of the Virgin Mary Mother of God
This chapel was historically founded by the knight Berenguer de Peramola in 1401, under the invocation of San Dionisio and Santa Margarita, as he wrote in his will. In fact in this chapel had a beautiful altarpiece dedicated to these saints (painted by the Master of Cabanyes, between 1505 and 1510), what in 1939 He was transferred to the Diocesan Museum and is currently located in a chapel of the ambulatory of the Cathedral of Valencia.
This chapel received other avocations, the last, until 1936, "Virgen del Remedio". Today is dedicated to the worship of the Virgin Mother of God. An anonymous oil s. XVIII, It is representing the Virgen del Buen Reposo or milk, in her maternal attitude towards the Child, icon serves as the title for young wives and mothers who take their protection.
14. Nave and presbytery.
The presbytery is octagonal, the five sides are appreciated, the style born in the buildings of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. Plementería Moorish dome is perfect and is the original. Three elongated tear warheads central walls, They are closed with alabaster or "pedra llum".
15. sanjuanistas red and white bands, 13th century.
On the blocks of two central panels, two color vertical bands are perceived, red and white Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. They used to distinguish their camps stores, insignia in battle and sails of their ships. They are original paintings from the thirteenth century made with tempera technique to tail, unprepared. They reach a height of 6 meters and each band has a width of 8 cm.
16. Chairs the Image of Our Lady of the Miracle:
Stone sculptures carved by José Esteve Edo, who performed in 1974. Painted by Antonio Piró.
This image is an enlarged replica of the one found in the Diocesan Museum of the Cathedral of Valencia from San Juan del Hospital. The original is valuable for its antiquity, He was brought in 1238 by the Knights of the Knights Hospitaller, During the conquest of Valencia. documentation on it is preserved from 1245. School imagery of Navarre and Aragon area.
Pope Adrian IV, in 1552 granted privilege of "plenary indulgence" who utter a short prayer before her. The 23 May 1971 D. José Maria García Lahiguera, Archbishop of Valencia, He blessed and enthroned again in San Juan del Hospital.
17. Image of San Juan Bautista, titular Church:
The author of the bronze sculpture is Alfredo Biagini (Italy, 1886) Italian naturalist school. Donated to the church of San Juan del Hospital by the Infante of Spain D. Ludwig of Bavaria, who through the Duke of Hernani, President of the Sovereign Order of Malta for the language of Spain, he gave the Marquis de Baldoví, D. Javier Manglano, to make his move to Valencia 14 July of 1970.
18. XV century stalls:
The supposed origin of this piece of masonry is the Monastery of San Benito de Calatayud of s. XII, annexed to the Benedictine Monastery of Oña. Attributed to Francisco Gomar, Spanish sculptor born in Zaragoza in s.XV, It was acquired, in bad shape, by the Barons of the Royal Jura, Dear. Mr. D. Louis Muller and Ferrer, and his wife, Doña Blanca Morenés and Carvajal.
In 1996, your son, D. Jaime Muller and Morenés, he offered to the temple D. Manuel de Murua and Sancristóval, rector of the church of San Juan del Hospital. In December 1996 they moved to the woodshop Brothers Arnal Sunday, in Serra, (Valencia) the 13 parts to be assembled and restored. The original stonework was carved in oak Flanders; parts added in the restoration, in French oak.
19. Columns of the transverse arch. Capiteles califales S. X.
The two lower sections of the shanks Ringed columns of torales, framing the chancel of the temple, They are white marble Roman bill. Possibly they lined the spina of the circus and were reused just as tombstones and other debris, They are still located on the street of Trinquete de los Caballeros and the crypt of St.. Barbara.
The upper shafts of the columns, They are pink marble capitals honeycomb, of the Caliphate in the tenth century. They are identical to those found in the Palace of Medina Azahara in Córdoba and the Museum of the Alhambra in Granada, coming from the same palace. On the south side shaft, painted in dark red on marble, There is a Hebrew sign representing ivy. (the sin that entangles between the feet)
20. Sepulchral slabs, Seventeenth and eighteenth century.
In the center of the nave of the church can be seen several tombstones in black marble with inlaid white marble of the Maltese Cross, shields and titles Freires or Knights of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. Some of them, dislocated from their place of origin, They have been placed in penitential chapel at the bottom of the temple.
21. Primitive chapel of Santa Barbara. (South of the presbytery)
Constance chapel founded by the Empress of Greece and dedicated to this devotion to the empress brought. It was built between the buttresses of the southern apse. The key to the vault you can see the "Eagle Ghibelline", Hohenstaufen shield. The capitals of the columns are decorated with attached harriers, emblem of the House of Saxony and Lower Austria in the s. XIII, He is corresponding to the teaching of Emperor Frederick II, father of Constance.
It retains a large window with delicate tracery tripartite, closed with alabaster. The plinth is high with Italian styling reminiscent in: the tears of San Francisco or Tau.
On the floor of the chapel is a slab through which you can access the "pudridero". It is a rectangular space covered with vault of reduced dimensions (1,80 m de largo, 0,70 m wide and 0,90 m height). Here they were deposited the remains of Doña Constanza from 15 April of 1307, day he died, later placed in a sarcophagus.
Currently it placed a stone baptismal font.
22. Chapel of St. Francis of Assisi. Access Hidden Camera. (North of the chancel)
The chapel is located between the buttresses on the north side of the apse, It is dated between centuries XIV-XV. Burial of the Count of Peñalva, royal butler. A hood is accessed by an arc-arch trilobal tall capitals and plant decoration. The most interesting is the vault that is covered. It is a vault in which the ribs intersect to form a knot; great constructive solution boldness by the master builder, and linking the deck with the walls, apparently some preexisting, with a great knowledge of the stone sternotomy, It is showing a very mature Gothic.
At the top of the west wall there is an opening that leads to a "hidden camera" on the chapel wall paintings; is another identical dimensions Chapel, which you could only be accessed by an antique spiral staircase, located inside the wall or through the small opening about seven meters. This place, also called "reconditorio" served to hide the Blessed Sacrament, the relics of saints or jewelry images. In the religious-military orders, It is sometimes used as a dungeon. In the nineteenth century the archives of the church stood.
It's a camera pointed vault, which it has a pointed transverse arch on which unloads the west wall of the bell tower, seventeenth century work. From the hidden camera starts the spiral staircase leading up to the room bells.
23. Chapel of St. Michael the Archangel or wall paintings, 13th century.
Dedicated to the Archangel Michael, (I advocation Jaime I liked to repeat their foundations). This chapel is of the same construction stage of the Romanesque north gate courtyard, i.e., half of the thirteenth century. It is a chapel covered with pointed barrel vault (although it was first semicircular barrel, As it is seen in the restoration work), and its north wall Ripping Romanesque we appreciate from the outside opens.
The most interesting of this chapel are paintings that decorate; considered a jewel in the Valencian medieval painting; They have been dated in the last decades of the thirteenth century. Interesting not only from an artistic point of view, but also from its uniqueness within the field of painting parietal time in the Kingdom of Valencia. The possible authors little is known, but look closely this work can speak of a painter of extreme quality and technical finesse, in terms of shapes and shades, using a procedure distemper but fatty components (almost oil painting, something back and that is very advanced for its time), para dar veladuras, finish details, etc. Byzantine influence is also seen in terms of style and iconographic message.
His iconológico message is the covenant of God with men. In both the Old Testament and the New. But his dedication to St. Michael the Archangel, makes the front it was represented the battle of the angels referred to in Revelation.
24. Royal Chapel of Santa Barbara. S. XVII
Baroque chapel Factory, work of the architect Juan B. Perez Castiel, dated 1689 inscribed in its ornamentation. Its construction (It was started in 1686) documents where authors and various guilds employees are detailed in its ornamentation are preserved.
The dome rests on pendentives on which were represented the attributes of the Holy: where the tower was locked, custody of the Blessed Sacrament, the palm of martyrdom and the column where it was supported by the eagle whipped shield Empress Constance, to build the first chapel Mandara.
25. Floret of the key dome of the Royal Chapel of Santa Barbara.
Within the rich decoration of the chapel stands, the key to the dome, an octagonal finial anthropomorphic corbels a hanging carrier angel of a palm, concerning the martyrdom of Santa Barbara. It is a work of Valencian sculptor José Capuz, polychrome wood tempera on stucco gold leaf.
26. Baroque altarpiece of Palencia origin.
The altarpiece of the chapel is made of gilded wood and comes from Palencia, replacing burnt altarpiece 1936. Sagrario door is a bajorelievo of the Sagrada Familia s work. XX of Vicente López.
The niche was recently recovered and restored the entire altarpiece, Raphael within the development project approved by the European Commission on Culture. In the wings of the cherubs that decorate the pinnacle are the original inscriptions with dates written by the artisans when it was built.
27. Baroque Sgraffito.
In this chapel we see very closely the ornamental art of sgraffito. Very old technique but it reaches its method development and the work of artisans mudéjares, that would last and is mainly spread by the Spanish Southeast. It's an easy way to decorate plastering the walls and uses vegetables and anthropomorphic motifs, generally only two tones in the polychrome: self plaster and black smoke.
28. Chapel of the Passion. Chapel Joan -Torres.
Built in the fifteenth century by Pere Balaguer added as the first chapel on the north side of the ship. It is a rectangular space of five meters by four wide side, covered by vault, whose stone ribs converge in a central key and split four cantilevers with heraldic historiadas Joan-Torres. Originally dedicated to the Holy Crucifix had, later to be dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, when it was constituted as Military Chapel, until it moved to Santo Domingo.
It is located the Altarpiece of the Passion of Jerónimo Vallejo Cosida. Renaissance. Aragonese Mannerist artist who made this altarpiece by contract 20 from December to 1578, as custom Hon. Mr. Antonio García, Bishop of Útica (Cartago) for the high altar of the Collegiate Valtorres (Teruel). The famous character appears in the predela, and his coat of arms at the top corners of the altarpiece.
29. Slab-shield in white marble Joan-Torres family
Family Byzantine and Italian, who came to the Kingdom of Valencia at the end of s. XIII, accompanying the Empress Constance Greece. A coat of white marble bears the symbols of the race. It is a stone bas-relief carving around the center with a laurel wreath, holding a shield Swabian or profile Lower Austria, with heraldic motifs of the Joan-Torres family (Imperial origin): Sovter quartered with towers and eagles.
30. Chapel of St. Josemaria Escriva de Balaguer.
Dedicated Year 2002, year of the centenary of the birth of St. Jose Maria Escriva de Balaguer, in gratitude for the initiative of Blessed opening worship the Church of San Juan del Hospital.
Image bronze sculptor Rafael Huerta is Celaya, del s. XX.
31. Penitential chapels.
The last chapel on the north side of the ship has been devoted to penitential chapel with confessionals or installed at the foot of the church.
This chapel was destroyed during the siege of the French troops in the s. XIX, It was intended, after a brief reconstruction poorly built offices. In the year 1969 They were demolished and rebuilt, following the canon of gothic church factory and having found, under its neo coating, outbursts of primitive arches.
A diptych in bas-relief s. Flemish School XVII, representing Calvary, adorns this space.
32. The new penitential chapel, at the foot of the ship, He was part of that disappeared alley or court that limited the hospital complex to the west. It can be seen pointed arch plementería, blinded centuries, and could be the classic arc or "needle" that punctuate the Hebrew or Muslim streets.
In the wall, recessed, There are three gravestones of s. XVII; the most important is for the Marques de Sada, sanjuanista character of the Order who asked for will be moved to San Juan de los Panetes, in Zaragoza, after his death, as it was done several years later.
Other objects of interest are: an image of San José attributed to Vergara. An ark s girlfriend. XVII and bank s. XVI, which comes from the Monastery of Cotalba. Baroque XVII key that was in the chancel, It is installed on the ceiling after restoration.
33. The image of the Virgin of the Helpless presides over the chapel. It is a carving of s. XVIII of the patroness of Valencia. Donated by the family last century Montalt.
34. Southern patio. Crypt of Santa Barbara.
From the street of Trinquete de los Caballeros, (the name suggests the use for this game). You reach what was the Patio of Santa Barbara after the crenellated wall, already contained in the plane of Tosca 1704,.
In this small space is the entrance to the crypt Sta. Barbara.
This crypt was rebuilt in the sixteenth century, but this stony elements of the XIII and XIV century arch-solio primitive burial of the Empress Constance Greece were reused.
It is a rectangular space covered with a barrel vault, brick arranged threadedly, with approximate measures six meters long, three wide and four deep. In the background the west wall of the spina of the Roman circus of the third century was found, (the east wall of the spina is hidden because it served as a foundation or support one side of the crypt).
Several construction elements: barefoot novel, caps served to coffins and wakes up the walls. With all that information is completed, along with the steps found in the north courtyard, (and other external remains to set) They served to determine the metric of the Roman Circus Valencia, according to the research and study of Albert Ribera.
35. Medieval cemetery.
Advancing towards the end of the courtyard is reached cemeterial space, core interesting and unique hospital buildings. Also the Romanesque gateway to the church from the south courtyard.
This cover of the church from the cemetery, repeats the same pattern as the north gate, Roman arch point, with great dovelage, which superimposes a window is equal to the opposite side. On the right, taxation, breaking the door factory, you can see a very interesting arcosolio. It is one of the best preserved, having pointed arch structure with remains of mural decoration: the red crosses crusader knights. It is the burial place of Fernandez de Heredia. S the last decade. XIV.
A pile of stone in the s impostada. XVIII (which it was possibly the burial crypt area Sta. Barbara) It allows the holy water drops a pipe, traversing the wall, on the pile with the relic of the saint, brought by the column Constance, located inside of a buttress of the Baroque chapel.
36. funeral or hospital-Rey Don Jaime chapel, half of the 13th century.
It is one of the first manifestations of Gothic architecture in Valencian domed, It is a building of the last third of the XIII century, Rosemary founded by Arnau, Knight Conquest, Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene. According to document 1324, which is in the Archive of the Kingdom, the testament of its Nieto Llançol Rosemary.
This type of a chapel exempt hospital seems to derive sets of the first buildings of the Crusaders in the Holy Land. They appear flanked by open spaces and the chapel acts as symmetrical axis division. This solution was adapted by hospital and found several examples of such chapels in various parts of Europe., for example Memling, founding of the Knights Hospitaller in Belgium and Germany.
I placed somewhat elevated at the center of a space dedicated to cemetery, It is formed by a passageway and an apse and was covered by a gabled (as evidenced by the plane Mancelli, 1601) although currently not keep. Inside is a section of vault, ribbed stone and brick plementería arranged threadedly. Its head is polygonal with Romanesque cover shell. The corbels that surround the ledge are very peculiar iconographic: scallops pilgrims, The Juda's lion, the head of a king ... Jaime I, of a young ... and laying out all the cornice, crescent moon face down coat of the Romany.
37. Arco-thrones of the old cemetery of San Juan Joint Hospital.
As something anachronistic and full of mystery we see six arc-thrones attached to the wall of mud walls that dominate the cemetery on the south side and that could be dated around the XIII and XIV century. It was the closing of the limited original plot by the alley Cristóforo Soler, (closed in the s. XV).
Arches are Romanesque and Gothic, with more than a meter deep, in which at the bottom a gap is opened: or you ram, in which the deceased were deposited.
The arcosolios were in use until the mid-eighteenth. (Was the last intramural cemetery which closed in Valencia and neo-born cemetery). It is burial sites of some prestige, belonging to noble families or guilds. Documentarily it is known that many of them were decorated, not only with shields of the sagas buried there, but also pious scenes such as, a Pieta, displayed in the background of the arc-solio of such Guillem Montagut, (the description given in the document the Visitor, that you could see the paint from inside the church through the Romanesque south gate).
The first arc of the right (semicircular), It contains valuable information on your policromía, since it is equal to that of the oldest arches of this type, work crossed in the S. XI found in Dura-Europos, Syria. They were polychromatic color with gualda upper thread and the lower pillars almagra in. So you can see in this arc Cemetery San Juan del Hospital. It is indicating their age and even Middle Eastern tradition. They have been restored to their factory and have produced numerous both technical and constructive findings as ceramics and funerary objects. Currently he is working on the recovery of their polychromies.